What are NSentry domains and name servers?

There are two ways of ensuring a domain's connectivity:

The first of these is for the domain to be delegated by DENIC name servers to other name servers. This means that DENIC enters the addresses of at least two name servers in its databases. Any inquiry DENIC receives about this domain is passed on to these name servers. In order to ensure that the name servers concerned are accessible and competent, we perform a check of functionality the first time entries are made for them.

Secondly, there is the alternative of linking up to five services on DENIC's own name servers that have something to do with your domain, such as www.example.de or mail.example.de, directly with the IP address of the host or a mail server through which this service is handled (such links are known as “NSentries”). In this second case, you do not need to have a name server of your own.

How up-to-date is the whois query for domains?

To improve our services the whois servers will be equiped with a local database for status enquiries. The local databases receive the domain data from the registry database which leads to a short delay. As soon as the status of a domain is based on data older than five minutes an aditional line will be delivered. Please note that this is not the case when you use the web-whois.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Domain: denic.de
 Status: connect
 
 % DB time is <JJJJ-MM-TT> T<HH:MM:SS> +02:00
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The output of the line "DB time" will only occure with status queries when the data is older than five minutes. Otherwise the line will be omitted.

Do I get an IP address from DENIC Services?

 No. Our job is just to administer domains on behalf of DENIC eG, not IP addresses. The latter function has been entrusted to RIPE NCC in Amsterdam for the European space.

If you need IP addresses for access to the Internet, you will generally be able to get them from your Internet Service Provider (ISP), provided he/she belongs to RIPE's Local Internet Registries(LIRs).

It you don't want to connect up to the Internet, it will presumably be possible for you to work with a so-called "private address space". This concept is described in detail in RFC1918 (Address Allocation for Private Internets).

What happens to a domain when its holder dies?

Fundamentally, holding a domain is inheritable, so the heir of the late domain holder replaces the deceased person. Such an heir will need to show evidence of the inheritance to their provider or DENIC and will then be entered in DENIC's database as the new domain holder. The heir, of course, also has the right to delete the domain or to transfer it to someone else.

Why does DENIC Direct insist on particular forms for our communication?

DENICdirect provides forms for many transactions. That makes the job easier for both you and us. All you have to do is print out the forms and complete them. This way DENICdirect can be sure it will receive the declarations needed. Clarifications become unnecessary and delays are avoided.

The reason why DENICdirect asks you to send in the provided forms signed by you or your legal representative is to prevent misunderstandings at some later date.

Why are domains not registered if they have a hyphen in both the third and fourth positions?

 Under .de it is not possible to register any domains that contain a sequence of characters that are used to identify an Internationalized Domain Name (IDN). This affects all domains that have a hyphen in both their third and fourth position, such as xn--beispiel.de.

Is it possible for individuals or institutions not located in Germany to register a .de domain?

It is possible for individuals or institutions (that have legal capacity) not located in Germany to register .de domains.

For more information please refer to the DENIC Domain Terms and Conditions, §3 (4).

What is a Top Level Domain?

The Top Level Domains (TLDs) are the highest hierarchical level in the international Domain Name System (DNS). They are found at the end of the Domain, to the right of the last dot. We make a distinction between general or generic TLDs (gTLDs), such as .com, .net and .org, and country code TLDs (ccTLDs), such as .de (Germany) or .ch (Switzerland).

Currently, there are 15 gTLDs. Domains for some of them can be registered by anybody, whereas for others, such as .gov, .int, .aero or .museum, registration is reserved for particular user groups (in the four cases listed: the US government, international organisations, companies and institutions concerned with aviation, and museums). The coordination of the gTLDs is in the hands of the international organization ICANN.

The individual ccTLDs are administered by so-called Network Information Centers (NICs). For Germany, that is DENIC. A list of all the existing domain endings and the registries that administer them can be found on IANA's website.

How can I get hold of information as to which domains are still free or already registered?

We provide an online domain query service that you can use to check whether a domain has already been registered or whether it is still available for registration.

How and where can I arrange for my domain to be registered?

The registration of a .de domain can be arranged through any provider who is either a DENIC member themselves or who works with a DENIC member. The usual practice is that registration will be offered to you as part of the package of planning your Internet presence or that it will be an automatic part of an Internet-access package.

Once you have decided in favour of a particular provider, you can also apply to register your domain directly through them. We would ask you to understand that we are unable to give any prices for the registration of .de domains in cases like this since, each provider decides themselves what to charge.

If you don't want to have your domain registration undertaken by a provider, you have the alternative of entrusting it to our DENICdirect service. We will then charge our services to you in accordance with the most recent DENIC price list. In arriving at your decision, please consider that we will not provide you with any additional Internet services, such as web space or e-mail accounts. These are services that you will then have to organize yourself or order from a provider. For these reasons, most domain holders prefer to have registration handled by a provider.

Regardless of the route by which you arrange to have your domain registered, a contractual relationship is created between you as the domain holder and DENIC as the registry. To conclude the contract, it is necessary that the registration is in compliance with the conditions stipulated in DENIC's Domain Guidelines. The contractual provisions are summarized in DENIC's DomainTerms and Conditions.

What is meant by a domain's connectivity? What types of connectivity are possible for a .de domain?

 When we speak about the connectivity of a domain we refer to the provision of services that make it possible to reach it in the Internet. Under the Top Level Domain .de there are two alternative ways of ensuring the accessibility of a domain:

The first of this is a direct NSentry in the .de zone. The domain concerned is connected up directly via an address record (IN A or IN AAAA) or a mail-exchanger (IN MX) entry to the corresponding services.

The second is to connect the domain up through its own name server. In this case, the .de zone contains only a link to the appropriate name server.

How often are the .de name servers updated?

To become globally accessible, a newly registered domain must be included in the .de zone. Normally, this is done the next time the name servers are updated after the registration has been completed. The same applies to updates of name server records for domains that are already in the zone.

Normally, the update is implemented at every hour, and afterwards the zone will include all changes that have been confirmed by DENIC prior to the update.

What is a Top Level Domain?

The Top Level Domains (TLDs) are the highest hierarchical level in the international Domain Name System (DNS). They are found at the end of the Domain, to the right of the last dot. We make a distinction between general or generic TLDs (gTLDs), such as .com, .net and .org, and country code TLDs (ccTLDs), such as .de (Germany) or .ch (Switzerland).

Currently, there are 15 gTLDs. Domains for some of them can be registered by anybody, whereas for others, such as .gov, .int, .aero or .museum, registration is reserved for particular user groups (in the four cases listed: the US government, international organisations, companies and institutions concerned with aviation, and museums). The coordination of the gTLDs is in the hands of the international organization ICANN.

The individual ccTLDs are administered by so-called Network Information Centers (NICs). For Germany, that is DENIC. A list of all the existing domain endings and the registries that administer them can be found on IANA's website.

It is possible for further sub-domains to be set up under my domain?

 Yes. It is possible to divide a domain up into sub-domains (a sub-domain of bigcity-university.de would be, for instance, info.bigcity-university.de). However, such sub-domains are not registered by DENIC, but have to be set up by you or your provider. If you want to use the web address www.subdomain.de-beispieldomain.de, then DENIC will register the domain de-beispieldomain.de for you. To get the sub-domain subdomain.de-beispieldomain.de set up you should then contact your provider.

What preconditions do I have to satisfy to be able to register a .de domain?

 When you register a .de domain you conclude a contract, so you must satisfy all the conditions that apply to the conclusion of any sort of legally binding contract. First of all, that means that you be capable of entering into legally binding rights and duties, which any natural individual or legal entity is certainly capable of doing. Secondly you must be capable of conducting business or you must be effectively represented.

Who makes sure that the domain I request does not collide with the rights of third parties?

It is possible that the registration or use of a domain infringes the rights of others. DENIC makes it quite clear in its Domain Guidelines and Domain Terms and Conditions that it is your duty, before you register a domain, to check whether this domain might infringe any rights. Apart from that, of course, it is in your own interest, to perform such a check, since if, in the final analysis it turns out that your domain does infringe the rights of others, you will, in case of doubt, find you have problems with the holders of those rights, resulting in the loss of the domain.

In order to find out if other people might have conflicting rights, the least you can do, for instance, is the following:

Firstly, you should see if there are any (trade)marks that are identical or similar to your domain that have been registered or applied for with the German Patent and Trademark Office (Deutschen Patent- und Markenamt , DPMA). You can find that out from the information center of the patent office, through a commercial (trade)mark search service or with the assistance of patent attorneys or lawyers.

Secondly, you should check whether companies that are identical or similar to your domain have been entered in the commercial register. This sort of search is already available online, at least partially. Apart from that, you might find that institutions such as a German Chamber of Industry and Commerce (Industrie- und Handelskammer, IHK) would be able to assist you or, again, you could turn to a legal professional.

Thirdly, it is advisable to make use of the other search facilities available, such as Internet search engines, commercial registers or even the Yellow Pages.
If you find out that someone else might also have a right to the domain, you must do what a court of law would do in the event of litigation, namely, weigh up whose right is greater, yours or the other party's. This is exceedingly difficult to do, since even court judgements in domain cases are partly contradictory. Reviewing these judgements, one aspect that usually seems to play an important role is "priority", which means establishing who has been effectively using a particular designation longer. Another important consideration is the public familiarity with the designations and/or their users.

If there is any doubt - especially if you yourself feel apprehensive - you should most certainly obtain professional advice (from a lawyer, for instance, or from a patent lawyer, if trademark rights are an issue). In unclear cases, paying for specialist advice beforehand often costs a lot less than being sued later on by someone whose rights you had overlooked. You might also find it helpful to search for further information yourself (perhaps using the Internet) on matters such as court judgements.

How can I check whether the domain I would like infringes the rights of others?

 It is possible for the registration or use of a domain to infringe the rights of others. DENIC makes it quite clear in its Domain Guidelines and Domain Terms and Conditions that it is your duty, before you register a domain to check whether this domain might involve infringing rights. Apart from that, of course, it is in your own interest, to perform such a check, since if, in the final analysis it transpires that your domain does infringe the rights of others, you will, in case of doubt, find you have problems with the holders of those rights, resulting in the loss of the domain.

In order to find out if other people might have conflicting rights, the least you can do, for instance, is the following:

Firstly, you should see if there are any (trade)marks that are identical or similar to your domain that have been registered or applied for with the German Patent and Trademark Office (Deutschen Patent- und Markenamt , DPMA). You can find that out from the information centre of the patent office, through a commercial (trade)mark search service or with the assistance of patent attorneys or lawyers.

Secondly, you should check whether companies that are identical or similar to your domain have been entered in the commercial register. This sort of search is already available online (at least partially). Apart from that, you might find that a German Chamber of Industry and Commerce (Industrie- und Handelskammer, IHK) would be able to assist you or, again, you could turn to a legal professional.

Thirdly, it is advisable to make use of the other search facilities available, such as Internet search engines, commercial registers or even the Yellow Pages.

If you find out that someone else might also have a right to the domain, you must also do what a court of law would do in the event of litigation, namely, weigh up whose right is greater, yours or the other party's. This is exceedingly difficult to do, since even court judgements in domain cases are partly contradictory. Reviewing these judgements, one aspect that usually seems to play an important role is "priority", which means establishing who has been effectively using a particular designation longer. Another important consideration is the public familiarity with the designations and/or their users.

If there is any doubt (especially if you yourself feel apprehensive), you should most certainly obtain professional advice (from a lawyer, for instance). In unclear cases, paying for specialist advice beforehand often costs a lot less than being sued later on by someone whose rights you had overlooked. You might also find it helpful to search for further information yourself (perhaps using the Internet) on matters such as court judgements.

What consequences will it have for me if I supply inaccurate data when ordering a domain?

When you register a domain, you are required to ensure that the correct and complete data is given for the domain holder including an e-mail-adress. If you fail to do that, such as by indicating an irrelevant address or a false name, you run the risk of losing the domain later on. Wrong data gives DENIC the right to terminate the Domain Contract without giving you any notice beforehand. Be warned that it is a right that DENIC does not hesitate to use.

Is there always a direct contractual relationship between the domain holder and DENIC?

 Whenever you register a domain, it always leads to the creation of a domain contract directly between DENIC and you, the domain holder, even if the registration is handled by a provider. That has to be so, since DENIC, the registry, is the only body that can provide the service "domain" – and actually does this in practice. The contents of the domain contract are determined by DENIC's Domain Terms and Conditions and its Domain Guidelines.

What can I do if the domain I would like to have has already been registered for someone else?

DENIC always registers domains on a “first-come, first-served” basis. If someone else registered before you, the only thing you can do initially is to settle for a different name for your domain.

If you have a right to the domain, please also read our information about the DISPUTE procedure.

 

How does a correct name-server entry have to look like?

All information is made availlable to you on our website in section Nameserver  NSentry Data.

How does a correct NSentry have to look like?

All information is made availlable to you on our website in section Nameserver  NSentry Data.

How can I check my nameserver settings?

DENIC places at disposal the NAST tool for checking the name servers.

NAST (NAme Server Tester) is a tool that is used to check zones and name server configurations. It will help you to verify if the name servers for a domain are configured correctly and whether the zone is in accordance with the DENIC guidelines. It can be used to check domains that are already connected, as well as new domains that are not registered yet. It allows you to check your DNS data already before registration and thus helps you to avoid errors during the registration procedure.

I have received an invoice from DENIC. Why?

There are several reasons why you might have received an invoice from DENIC:

  1. You requested our DENICdirect service to register a domain or to carry out a provider transfer.
  2. DENICdirect is already administering your domain and you have received an invoice for the annual servicing fee.
  3. Your domain was going through the TRANSIT procedure and you neither deleted nor transferred your domain to another provider during the free-of-charge TRANSIT period. To make sure that you will not lose your domain, it was transferred to the at-cost service of DENICdirect.

Can it happen that my domain is not accessible for a certain period of time in connection with a Provider Change?

Yes. That can happen. What matters here is how much time you want to allow for the transfer. For all provider changes, we recommend you to allow a certain period of time during which your domain will be accessible through both providers. That will permit you to set up your new Internet presence without needing to rush. You can ask your old provider to establish a link that will simply pass on any incoming message to your new homepage, then to complete the formal Provider Change and, finally, to close down your old homepage.

The more thoroughly you plan it, the less likely there are to be problems. DENIC's recommendation is to plan for a transitional period of 1 week.

What happens to the domain if its registered holder is a legal entity that suffers insolvency or is dissolved?

 The insolvency of a domain holder has no impact on who holds the domain. It may, however, be that the right to dispose of it is transferred to a liquidator.

When a legal entity is dissolved, all its remaining assets are realized, and that includes any domains it may hold. That means that it is the liquidator who decides on what is to happen to these domains. DENIC cannot simply delete them.

I have received an invoice from a company unknown to me requesting me to remit money for my domain. What should I do?

Current note:

At present questionable invoices issued by ".DE Deutsche Domain" (info@deutschedomain.com), which claims to be a provider of domain registration services, are in circulation. These invoices are not related to DENIC in any respect. Please refer in addition to the warning issued by the consumer advice center of North Rhine-Westphalia (https://www.vz-nrw.de/de-deutsche-domain).

Before you pay anything, first of all take the time to check calmly what precisely it is that the payment is being demanded for. Make sure to always read the small print too.

Invoices for registering your .de domain and other services associated with it are sent to you only by the provider you yourself have commissioned to render these services. You will only receive an invoice from DENIC if you are a customer of our DENICdirect service - either because you arranged for DENICdirect to administer your domain or because your domain was in TRANSIT and you did not assign another provider to administer it.

Genuine written communication from DENIC is easy to recognize by

  • the unmistakable letterhead with the DENIC logo;
  • the explicit indication of the postal address of DENIC plus phone and fax number and e-mail as well as a contact at DENIC;
  • the explicit indication of the DENIC value added tax identification number (USt-IdNr.) and the bank details;
  • the explicit indication of the domain(s) concerned.


Our attention has been drawn to cases in which other companies have demanded payments from domain holders. These letters can be mistaken as invoices from DENIC. Thus, if another company unknown to you asks you for money for a domain service, you should check very carefully if the demand for payment is justified. If you have any doubt at all, you should contact the customer service department of your provider.

What can I do if false or incomplete data are stored for a .de-domain?

If you yourself are the holder of the domain concerned and if it is administered by a provider, you ought to contact your provider immediately and tell him/her the correct data, so that it can be communicated to DENIC. If you are the domain holder and if your domain is being managed by DENICdirect, you should send your corrections to DENIC without delay, making sure you use the form provided for the purpose.

If the domain belongs to someone else, you can send your relevant observations to DENIC, provided you also submit evidence of the inaccuracy of the data, or provided it is obvious that the data is wrong. For this purpose, dual evidence must be supplied including, first of all, evidence of the failure to deliver to the domain holder a document at their postal address stored in DENIC’s registration data. Suitable means of verification might either consist of an envelope sent to the domain holder and returned by the postal service bearing an "unknown at this address" or "moved to an unknown address " postmark, or of a notice, issued by a court, that a formal notification of documents could not be delivered to such address. In no way will it be adequate evidence to show that the domain holder simply refuses to accept letters or does not collect (registered) letters from a post office, since in such circumstances, the domain holder might actually exist at the address registered. A returned envelope bearing postmarks saying "delivery refused " or "not collected" will thus not be accepted by DENIC as an adequate evidence of a false address. Secondly, an official notice provided by an appropriate register (i.e. the residents' registration office, in the case of a natural person, or the companies' or trade register, in the case of a legal person) needs to be submitted, stating that no person or company of the relevant name is residing at the given address.

Am I required to keep contracts concluded with my customers and my correspondence with them?

Yes. All registration documentation must be retained, so that it can be produced as evidence if required. This applies for the whole duration of the contract and for a retention period afterwards, the exact length of which is laid down by law. DENIC does not impose any particular form on you, as a member, as to how you capture and save data and documents. However, existing documents and data must be kept and must be submitted to DENIC on request.

What is the legal situation when a domain is registered through a reseller?

 The contracts between DENIC and its member and DENIC and the domain holder are not affected in any way if registration passes via a reseller. The relationship between the DENIC member and the reseller depends on what agreements these two parties have entered into. Remember that DENIC members are always responsible for ensuring that their resellers are familiar with all DENIC's rules and that they abide by them.

How can I contact DENICdirect and when?

 The easiest way to contact DENIC Services is to

send an e-mail to info@denic-services.de,

send a message by fax to +49 6151 629 09 43 

or mail it to:

DENIC Services GmbH & Co. KG
DENICdirect
Berliner Allee 47
62495 Darmstadt
Germany

We are providing a telephone service, which is staffed without interruption from Monday to Friday (except local public holidays) from 8:00 to 18:00 (C.E.T.).
You can call us on  +49 6151 629 09 42.

My domain is managed by your service DENICdirect. Can you tell me whom to contact if I have any questions?

You find a wide range of information and all the documents you need on our website under direct.denic.de and in the special FAQs for DENICdirect customers.  
If you need any information you do not find there, please contact us at:

DENIC eG
Kaiserstraße 75 -77
60329 Frankfurt am Main
Germany

Our service staff is available from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 18:00 (CE(S)T):
Phone
National: (069) 27 235 273
International: +49 69 27 235 273
Fax
National: (069) 27 235 238
International: +49 69 27 235 238
e-mail: direct[at]denic[dot]de

What does it cost to have a .de domain at DENICdirect?

For administration by the DENICdirect service DENIC charges EUR 116,00 per .de domain for the first year, i.e. the year in which the domain is registered with DENICdirect. Thereafter, the administration fee is EUR 58.00 per domain and year. For further information, please go to the DENIC Price List.

Please note that the DENICdirect service does not include any technical services, such as e-mail account or web space. These services are provided exclusively through Internet service providers.

How long does it take for a domain registration to be processed through the DENICdirect service?

Provided the registration form submitted to us is accurate and complete, processing normally takes no more than 2 working days.

Important!
The registration form we provide online is not the contractually binding order. It is merely a convenient way of entering the complete necessary data and facilitates trouble-free processing. Please print out the registration form, have it signed by a duly authorized person and send it to DENICdirect.

Fax: (+49) 6151 629 09 43
E-Mail: direct[at]denic-services[dot]de

Letter:

DENIC Services GmbH & Co. KG
DENICdirect
Berliner Allee 47
64295 Darmstadt
Germany

Do I get a discount when I register multiple domains through DENICdirect?

DENICdirect does not grant any discount for multiple domain registration.

I am currently a DENICdirect customer and I would like to move my domain to a provider of my choice. What do I have to do?

To transfer your .de domain to a provider of your choice, DENICdirect needs a form in order to register an AuthInfo (provider transfer password) for your domain. Please send the form to DENICdirect.

Upon receipt of the form, DENICdirect will enter the AuthInfo for your domain in the DENIC database. Please communicate the AuthInfo you selected to your new provider as well, so that the provider can complete the provider transfer.

What particulars are needed in order to register and administer a .de domain through DENICdirect?

Of course, you must indicate the name of the domain you want. Apart from that, you must complete the printed application form or online application form with all the requested particulars concerning the domain holder, billing address and the technical data.

You will find further explanations about all the particulars we require in the DENIC Domain Guidelines.

Note:
Please note that the DENICdirect service does not include any technical services, such as e-mail account or web space. These services are provided exclusively through Internet service providers. You will find some potential providers on the DENIC List of Members.

How can I transfer the administration of my .de domain from my current provider to DENICdirect?

If you want to have your domain administered by DENICdirect in future, you must complete a procedure called a Provider Change. Responsibility for administering your domain will then be transferred from your provider (or from the DENIC member your provider works with if the provider is not a DENIC member) to DENICdirect. If you want to carry out a Provider Change, you must first give notice on your existing domain contract with your current provider. The provider will send you a provider change password, the AuthInfo. You must communicate this password to DENICdirect who will then implement the provider change with the AuthInfo. To do this, please send DENICdirect a Provider change form that you have filled out completely and signed.

How long does it take to process a provider transfer if I want to move my domain to DENICdirect?

Provided your provider transfer request form is accurate, complete and duly signed, processing will normally take no more than two working days.

What do I have to do to change my domain data for a domain that is administered by DENICdirect?

To carry out a data update, we need an update form signed by the domain holder or his legal representative. Please print out the domain update form, and return the accurate and complete, duly signed form to DENICdirect.

How long does it take to process a change in my domain data for a domain that is administered by the DENICdirect service?

Provided your update form is accurate, complete and duly signed, processing will normally take no more than two working days. Please print out and complete the update form, have it signed by a duly authorized person and send it to DENICdirect.

What services are offered by DENICdirect and what precisely do these services contain?

If you wish to register your domain with our service DENICdirect, you can choose between two types of services: "NSEntry" and "Nameserver".

DENIC NSEntry

This service allows up to five mailexchange- or address-entries within a domain. It is preferred, if you don't want to run your own nameservers. DENICsmall covers www.domain.de, ftp.domain.de and e-mail forwarding. The technical entries for the domain have to be specified.

DENIC Nameserver

This means delegation of the responsibility for a domain to at least two nameservers, that the customer specifies. All nameserver queries for this domain will be redirected to these responsible nameservers. The technical entries for the domain have to be specified.

A domain holder can initiate changes at any time (DENIC usually calls this process an UPDATE). We enter such changes into our system immediately. An update job can be used to modify the type of entry (NSEntry or Nameserver) as well as its contents. All updates must be in writing and must be submitted to DENIC as <media 768>complete jobs</media>. This update service is part of the maintenance covered by the registration fee and is thus not invoiced separately.

Important notice:

Domain registration through DENICdirect does not include any Internet access or any web space. You can only obtain these services from an Internet Service Provider (ISP). There are numerous ISPs to choose from and they also include many of DENIC's members.

Can I get technical services from DENICdirect, like e-mail accounts and web space?

DENICdirect is not an Internet service provider (ISP), so it does not make any technical services, such as Internet access, e-mail accounts or web space available for third parties.

These services are provided exclusively through Internet service providers.

I have a domain administered by DENICdirect. What do I have to do if I want to transfer it to a new holder?

 If you want to transfer a registered domain to a new holder, the first thing DENICdirect needs is a statement of transfer signed by the current domain holder. This must make it perfectly clear that the current domain holder is terminating his/her contract with us and transferring the totality of his/her rights and duties related to the domain to the new domain holder.

From the new domain holder we also need a domain-application form, which must be filled in completely and accurately, and signed. You should send these documents via e-mail, fax or postal.

Please also note that DENIC's Domain Terms and Conditions and its Domain Guidelines also apply in the event of transfers.

What do I have to do to delete a domain administered by DENICdirect?

If you want to delete your domain, please print out the domain deletion form, fill it in accurately and completely, and return the duly signed form to DENICdirect.

Please note:
Please note that deleting a domain does not relieve you of the duty to pay any domain fees that may be due.

Any domain fees you have already paid will not be refunded upon deletion, even if the period of time for which they were paid has not yet expired.

What happens to the domain if its registered holder is a legal entity that suffers insolvency or is dissolved?

 The insolvency of a domain holder has no impact on who holds the domain. It may, however, be that the right to dispose of it is transferred to a liquidator.

When a legal entity is dissolved, all its remaining assets are realized, and that includes any domains it may hold. That means that it is the liquidator who decides on what is to happen to these domains. DENIC cannot simply delete them.

Which characters are permitted in .de domains?

Besides the ASCII characters (the 26 Latin letters, the ten numerals and the hyphen) you may use some other characters for IDNs under .de. These include the German umlauts ä, ö and ü as well as the letter eszett ("ß") and letters with accents and other diacritics. We have compiled a list with the new additional characters valid for IDNs under .de in a table for you.

You might wonder why these particular 93 characters have been chosen and not others. There are several reasons:

  • DENIC supports all characters included in the Unicode Latin-1 Supplement and Latin Extended-A blocks which are marked as "PROTOCOL VALID" in the RFC 5892 (The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications).
  • DENIC is an open registry free from any form of discrimination. In Germany, there is no meaningful way of drawing a line between the various character sets, since the written German language now includes characters that originated in the languages of the northern, southern and eastern parts of Europe. The sensible and appropriate solution for us therefore seemed to be to adopt two blocks that cover the necessary European character set for those languages that are based on the Latin alphabet, including some additional characters.
  • The most frequently used new characters of these character sets can be entered via standard German keyboards without requiring any additional equipment or outlay.

I want to see what characters will be possible in IDNs. Is there anywhere I can look them up?

Yes. Just call the table DENIC has compiled for you. It contains a list of all the admissible characters, plus their corresponding numbers (in both decimal and hexadecimal) in the Unicode table, along with their official designations in both English and German. This table can also be used by your computer’s copy function. Simply mark a letter in the table and then paste it either to your browser or DENIC's whois search.

What are the rules for the minimum and maximum lengths of character strings in IDN domains?

A .de domain must consist of at least one character, but its maximum length must not exceed 63 characters. In the case of IDNs, the question immediately arises as to whether these length constraints refer to the IDN itself (such as straße.de) or its transposition as an ASCII character string (xn--strae-oqa.de).

For technical reasons, the maximum length of 63 characters applies to the ASCII character string, whereas the minimum length of three characters applies to the IDN.

Are IDNs permitted as host names for name servers and NSentries?

 No. These entries are loaded directly into the name server and are not transposed first. The situation for host names for name servers and NS entries remains precisely what it has been so far: the only permitted designations are those that are comprised solely of the basic ASCII character set. It is thus possible to enter the punycode value (such as dns.xn--strae-oqa.de) as the host name in the name-server entries but not the corresponding IDN (such as dns.straße.de).

This arrangement has one big advantage in that hosts with Japanese, Chinese, Cyrillic, etc. names can also act as name servers too and there are no limitations to a particular character set. It is true that such host names cannot be registered under .de, but other registries are free to choose what letters and other characters they want to permit and, of course, their decisions are guided by the needs of the internet users they cater for.

When will my ß-domain be ready for use?

All ß-domains can be used immediately after registration. They are covered by the output of the DENIC information services in realtime.

Please note our information on how some web browsers treat domains containing the letter "ß".

Kann ich bei DENICdirect auch Domains registrieren, die nicht auf .de enden?

Nein, denn DENICdirect ist nur für .de-Domains zuständig. Wenn Sie eine Domain unterhalb einer generischen Top Level Domain (wie z. B. .com, .net, .org, .info, usw.) registrieren wollen, so können Sie dies über einen der bei ICANN akkreditierten Registrare tun.

Falls Sie eine Domain unterhalb einer anderen ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain) als .de registrieren lassen wollen, fragen Sie bitte Ihren Provider, ob er auch solche Domains anbietet oder wenden Sie sich an die entsprechende Registrierungsstelle.